The Chosen (Part 1)

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Re: The Chosen (Part 1)

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Opinion
OPINION

The Words That Killed Medieval Jews
By Sara Lipton
Dec. 11, 2015



Credit...Jeffrey Decoster
DO harsh words lead to violent acts? At a moment when hate speech seems to be proliferating, it’s a question worth asking.

Attorney General Loretta E. Lynch recently expressed worry that heated anti-Muslim political rhetoric would spark an increase in attacks against Muslims. Some claim that last month’s mass shooting in Colorado Springs was provoked by Carly Fiorina’s assertion that Planned Parenthood was “harvesting baby parts”; Mrs. Fiorina countered that language could not be held responsible for the deeds of a “deranged” man. Similar debates have been occasioned by the beating of a homeless Hispanic man in Boston, allegedly inspired by Donald J. Trump’s anti-immigration rhetoric, and by the shooting deaths of police officers in California, Texas and Illinois, which some have attributed to anti-police sentiment expressed at Black Lives Matter protests.

No historian can claim to have insight into the motives of living individuals. But history does show that a heightening of rhetoric against a certain group can incite violence against that group, even when no violence is called for. When a group is labeled hostile and brutal, its members are more likely to be treated with hostility and brutality. Visual images are particularly powerful, spurring actions that may well be unintended by the images’ creators.

The experience of Jews in medieval Europe offers a sobering example. Official Christian theology and policy toward Jews remained largely unchanged in the Middle Ages. Over roughly 1,000 years, Christianity condemned the major tenets of Judaism and held “the Jews” responsible for the death of Jesus. But the terms in which these ideas were expressed changed radically.

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Before about 1100, Christian devotions focused on Christ’s divine nature and triumph over death. Images of the crucifixion showed Jesus alive and healthy on the cross. For this reason, his killers were not major focuses in Christian thought. No anti-Jewish polemics were composed during these centuries; artworks portrayed his executioners not as Jews, but as Roman soldiers (which was more historically accurate) or as yokels. Though there are scattered records of anti-Jewish episodes like forced conversions, we find no consistent pattern of anti-Jewish violence.

In the decades around 1100, a shift in the focus of Christian veneration brought Jews to the fore. In an effort to spur compassion among Christian worshipers, preachers and artists began to dwell in vivid detail on Christ’s pain. Christ morphed from triumphant divine judge to suffering human savior. A parallel tactic, designed to foster a sense of Christian unity, was to emphasize the cruelty of his supposed tormentors, the Jews.

Partly out of identification with this newly vulnerable Christ, partly in response to recent Turkish military successes, and partly because an internal reform movement was questioning fundamentals of faith, Christians began to see themselves as threatened, too. In 1084 the pope wrote that Christianity “has fallen under the scorn, not only of the Devil, but of Jews, Saracens, and pagans.” The “Goad of Love,” a retelling of the crucifixion that is considered the first anti-Jewish Passion treatise, was written around 1155-80. It describes Jews as consumed with sadism and blood lust. They were seen as enemies not only of Christ, but also of living Christians; it was at this time that Jews began to be accused of ritually sacrificing Christian children.

Ferocious anti-Jewish rhetoric began to permeate sermons, plays and polemical texts. Jews were labeled demonic and greedy. In one diatribe, the head of the most influential monastery in Christendom thundered at the Jews: “Why are you not called brute animals? Why not beasts?” Images began to portray Jews as hooknosed caricatures of evil.

The first records of large-scale anti-Jewish violence coincide with this rhetorical shift. Although the pope who preached the First Crusade had called only for an “armed pilgrimage” to retake Jerusalem from Muslims, the first victims of the Crusade were not the Turkish rulers of Jerusalem but Jewish residents of the German Rhineland. Contemporary accounts record the crusaders asking why, if they were traveling to a distant land to “kill and to subjugate all those kingdoms that do not believe in the Crucified,” they should not also attack “the Jews, who killed and crucified him?”

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Hundreds, perhaps thousands, of Jews were massacred in towns where they had peacefully resided for generations. At no point did Christian authorities promote or consent to the violence. Christian theology, which applied the Psalm verse “Slay them not” to Jews, and insisted that Jews were not to be killed for their religion, had not changed. Clerics were at a loss to explain the attacks. A churchman from a nearby town attributed the massacres to “some error of mind.”

But not all the Rhineland killers were crazy. The crusaders set out in the Easter season. Both crusade and Easter preaching stirred up rage about the crucifixion and fear of hostile and threatening enemies. It is hardly surprising that armed and belligerent bands turned such rhetoric into anti-Jewish action.

For the rest of the Middle Ages, this pattern was repeated: Preaching about the crusades, proclamations of Jewish “enmity” or unsubstantiated anti-Jewish accusations were followed by outbreaks of anti-Jewish violence, which the same shocked authorities that had aroused Christians’ passions were then unable to restrain. We see this in the Rhineland during the Second Crusade (1146), in England during the Third Crusade (1190), in Franconia in 1298, in many locales following the Black Death in 1348, and in Iberia in 1391. Sometimes the perpetrators were zealous holy warriors, sometimes they were opportunistic business rivals, sometimes they were parents grieving for children lost to accident or crime, or fearful of the ravages of a new disease.

Some may well have been insane. But sane or deranged, they did not pick their victims in a vacuum. It was repeated and dehumanizing excoriation that led those medieval Christians to attack people who had long been their neighbors.

Today’s purveyors of anti-Muslim, anti-immigrant, anti-police and anti-abortion rhetoric and imagery may not for a moment intend to provoke violence against Muslims, immigrants, police officers and health care providers. But in the light of history, they should not be shocked when that violence comes to pass.

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Re: The Chosen (Part 1)

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Issue 24March 2015The Tower MagazineFrench Prime Minister Manuel Valls at the funeral of French Jewish community leader Jean Kahn, August 20, 2013. Photo: Claude Truong-Ngoc / Wikimedia
Europe’s Wave of Anti-Semitism Can Be Stopped. Here’s How
Benjamin Kerstein
Benjamin Kerstein
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The Global Pogrom has taken lives, legitimized violence, and spread fear among Jews across Europe and beyond. But there is a great deal that can be done to roll it back.
The worldwide eruption of anti-Semitism and anti-Semitic violence that is now over a decade old—and which I described as a Global Pogrom in a previous article—reached a peak during last summer’s Gaza war and the subsequent series of terror attacks in Paris; but it shows no sign of dissipating. In Copenhagen, yet another attack on a group of artists who offended the delicate sensibilities of murderous fanatics was matched with yet another attack on a Jewish target—this time a synagogue in which a bat mitzvah was underway—leaving a volunteer security guard dead. It was later revealed that, unsurprisingly to those of us who have followed the phenomenon for any length of time, the Danish authorities had refused to provide enhanced security for the site.
Meanwhile, Jewish life across the Continent continued under a state of siege, with enhanced security thankfully provided in some countries, while Jewish leaders in others were left demanding more to little response. There was also Zvika Klein’s now infamous video, in which he filmed himself walking the streets of Paris in a kippah and tzitzit to a seemingly endless torrent of intimidation and abuse, the perversity reaching a climax when a young child asked his mother, “Doesn’t he know he’ll be killed?” Even children, it seems, have become aware of the fact that, in many places in Europe, it has been decided that some have earned the right to attack and even kill Jews.

As was inevitable, moreover, the Pogrom has risen up against those who have denounced it. Most prominent among the targets was French Prime Minister Manuel Valls, who delivered a blistering denunciation of anti-Semitism after the Paris attacks, and has now been accused of being under the insidious control of his Jewish wife by none other than a former foreign minister of his own country.

Some pointed out the decision of a large group of Muslims to form a “peace ring” around a synagogue in Norway as a ray of hope. There is no doubt that it was an admirable example of interfaith solidarity. But if the Jews of Norway can now only worship under Muslim protection, serious questions must be raised about the ability or the willingness of the responsible authorities to take effective action.

Flowers were placed in front of Copenhagen’s Great Synagogue after a shooting that left a Jewish security guard dead. Photo: Kim Bach / Wikimedia
Flowers were placed in front of Copenhagen’s Great Synagogue after a shooting that left a Jewish security guard dead. Photo: Kim Bach / Wikimedia

Most disappointing of all, perhaps, was the most prominent example of Pogrom denial in years. In an interview with the website Vox, U.S. President Barack Obama made the no doubt well-meaning statement that the Paris kosher market attack was the act of “a bunch of violent, vicious zealots who … randomly shoot a bunch of folks in a deli in Paris.” Given that the now-dead attacker openly acknowledged his anti-Semitic motivations, had cased other Jewish sites before the attack, and had asked at least one shopper if he was Jewish before shooting him after learning he was, the criticism that came the president’s way cannot be viewed as anything other than fair. Even more depressing, however, was the fact that his statement was defended by several other administration officials, including the White House press secretary, who doubled down by saying the Jews at the Hyper Cacher market were targeted “because of where they randomly happened to be.” The fact that Obama likely had the best of intentions when he made his statement makes it all the more disheartening, as it proves that Pogrom denial need not be malicious or even conscious in order to be extremely counterproductive.

In the face of all of this, it is easy enough to simply throw up one’s hands in despair. The Global Pogrom, it seems, is unstoppable. No atrocity it commits will force the relevant authorities to acknowledge the threat, or convince those who could arrest its spread to act. There will be no justice for its victims, and no justice done upon its perpetrators. The Jews of Europe and wherever else the Pogrom has spread will flee, probably to Israel, and that will be the end of it.

But this is not the case. The Global Pogrom is not unstoppable. It is, in fact, extremely vulnerable. It has not been stopped because no one has seriously tried to stop it. It operates with impunity because it has been granted impunity, and that impunity can be taken away. If action is taken, and taken now, the Global Pogrom can be stopped, and it can be defeated.

There is no doubt that a Global Pogrom requires a global response. And, first and foremost, that must be a global Jewish response. But this has yet to be forthcoming. In particular, the U.S. and Israel, one with a large and politically active Jewish community, the other a militarily-empowered Jewish state, have proven disappointingly inactive on the issue. American Jewish organizations register protests, but have yet to undertake an organized campaign. Israel tends to urge aliyah, which, while admirable in and of itself, cannot solve the immediate problem. Put simply, Israel and the American Jewish community are the natural leaders of the struggle against a Global Pogrom, but they have yet to find a way to lead.
The reasons for this are fairly simple: For both American and Israeli Jews, the idea of a Global Pogrom is difficult to comprehend. American Jews have achieved unprecedented success and acceptance in the United States. It is all but inconceivable to them not only that a mass anti-Semitic movement might exist, but that the authorities would do next to nothing about it. To American Jews, anti-Semitism is not a mob of thugs attacking a synagogue or trashing a Jewish neighborhood, but a lone band of skinheads or members of a tiny Right-wing militia; and they have a justified confidence that the authorities will act to contain such domestic extremists.

As a result, a situation in which anti-Semitism is not simply the domain of kooks and rednecks, but a mass movement that has seized the imagination of millions across Europe, is very difficult for American Jews to grasp; let alone the possibility that authorities might act not with swift justice, but with indifference, idleness, denial, and even apologetics for the attackers.

In Israel, the problem is even simpler: Israeli Jews live in a country where they are a comfortable majority. They do not simply trust the state; they are the state. In effect, they live in a country in which the state cannot be anti-Semitic. As a result, for most Israelis—especially native-born sabras—the idea of a state that is simply unconcerned with anti-Semitism and its victims is so far beyond the realm of their personal experience as to be almost impossible to imagine. And, ironically, the possibility of aliyah has exacerbated the problem. After all, Israelis can say, if it’s so bad over there, why don’t they just come here?

In an irony even more tragic, these two communities are also hampered by the memory of the Holocaust. There is no doubt that, in comparison to the Shoah, the current wave of anti-Semitism pales in comparison. But since all such outbreaks are inevitably, if usually unconsciously, compared to the Holocaust, it is difficult for both American Jews and Israelis to see the Pogrom as serious enough to arouse apprehension and action.

And it is true: The Global Pogrom, thankfully, is not the Holocaust. Very, very far from it. But this does not make it in any way acceptable. Nor is it an excuse for allowing it to continue unchecked. The words “Never Again” do not only refer to the Holocaust, but to all forms of anti-Semitism and anti-Semitic violence, especially those that are officially condoned or officially denied. If that “Never Again” can be revived, however, in regard to the thankfully smaller but nonetheless horrifying phenomenon we currently face, then there is no doubt that Israel and American Jewry can rise to the occasion, as they did in the case of the Soviet Jews four decades ago. And as they were then, they can be victorious.

The most important thing for Israelis, American Jews, and indeed everyone to understand about the Global Pogrom is that the myth of its invincibility is just that. In fact, the Pogrom is strikingly vulnerable. Practically everything it does, from hate speech to physical violence to murder, is patently illegal. Many of these crimes also leave pogromists and their supporters open to civil penalties, such as the favorite pogromist tactic of destroying property. And, of course, the Pogrom violates the civil rights of citizens living in countries where civil rights are ostensibly sacrosanct. Indeed, to a striking extent, the Pogrom is most vulnerable to the weapon the relevant authorities are most frightened to use—namely, the enforcement of their own laws.
Even more important, perhaps, is the fact that—contrary to its portrayal in much of the media—pogroms are not the work of “random” individuals. Even the three perpetrators of the Charlie Hebdo and Hyper Cacher attacks were members of a carefully organized terror cell tangentially connected to al-Qaeda. But in the case of larger-scale attacks, some very prominent and very vulnerable groups are involved.

The mob that attacked and almost breached the gates of the Synagogue de la Roquette in Paris last summer, for example, did not emerge from a vacuum. It broke off from a much larger anti-Israel demonstration nearby. Such demonstrations do not happen spontaneously. They require money, organization, and equipment that only specific groups can provide. Without them, the Pogrom could not exist. In the case of the Paris pogrom, the demonstration was organized by a motley crew of Muslim and far-Left groups united around hatred of Israel. A similar situation took place in Britain. Demonstrations in Berlin that included genocidal rhetoric from various speakers also included attendees from far-Right and neo-Nazi organizations. Since even those demonstrations that did not descend into violence were marked by hate speech and incitement to violence, both of which are completely illegal in most European countries, all of the organizations involved in these incidents are exposed to civil and criminal penalties.

The anti-Semitic French comedian Dieudonné. Photo: Jastrow / Wikimedia
The anti-Semitic French comedian Dieudonné. Photo: Jastrow / Wikimedia

There is also the question of civil and religious leaders who engage in incitement to violence. Radical imams across Europe, for example, have been filmed and recorded giving sermons and speeches of the most vicious kind, quoting anti-Jewish sections of the Quran and demanding holy war against Israel and the Jews in general. Such sentiments are sometimes echoed by other public figures, few of whom face legal or civil consequences for their hate speech. But as the case of Dieudonné—an anti-Semitic French comedian just arrested for expressing solidarity with the Hyper Cacher terrorist—proves, the consistent enforcement of hate speech laws can be very effective.

In North America, where the Pogrom has struck in places like Boston, New York, and Calgary, the violence has been much less ferocious, but is clearly getting worse. There, the focal point is mostly college campuses. Perhaps because anti-Israel sentiment is widespread in institutions of higher education, perhaps because college administrations act, in a sense, as autonomous states-within-a-state, the European pattern is beginning to assert itself. Anti-Israel groups like Students for Justice in Palestine, for example, have openly used hate speech, incitement, and at times outright physical violence to intimidate Jewish and non-Jewish opponents. For the most part, the administrations in charge have reacted with little if any action, preferring—like the governments of Europe—to either pretend it isn’t happening or blame it on the Jews themselves. Yet the conduct of groups like SJP is both patently illegal and in obvious violation of the speech codes that institutions of higher education enforce with great ferocity when other minority groups are involved.

Were these laws and other codes of conduct enforced consistently, were those who participate in mob violence against Jews arrested and criminally charged, were radical imams and anti-Semitic public figures consistently charged with racist incitement, were campus hate groups penalized or banned, and were groups that sponsor demonstrations at which hate speech and incitement lead to open violence held civilly and criminally liable for the damage they cause, the Global Pogrom would find itself seriously impeded and, ultimately, unable to function.

But it is now clear that none of this will happen without pressure. European governments, for the most part, either do not want or are too cowardly to enforce their own laws; and colleges and universities appear to feel the same way. It seems that the world will not act against the Pogrom unless it is forced to. And the only way to force it is to set the price of inaction higher than that of action.

And this pressure must come, first and foremost, from the global Jewish community; in particular, from American Jewry and Israel. To steal a line from Rabbi Hillel: If we are not for ourselves, who will be for us?

Contrary to the anti-Semitic stereotypes embraced by the global pogromists, the Jews do not rule the world, as the inability of the European Jews to garner more protection from their governments has amply demonstrated. But American Jewry and Israel have some cards they can play.
The model for such efforts is, as mentioned above, the struggle to free the Soviet Jews. With Israel acting as a destination for aliyah and a diplomatic player on the world stage, and American Jews engaging in a campaign of legal and political activism, as well as civil disobedience, the campaign on behalf of the Soviet Jews was ultimately successful. There is no reason to think that the same kind of campaign cannot be successful in arresting and defeating the Global Pogrom.

The first and most important aspect of this is awareness. Israel and American Jewry must learn to think beyond the safety of their own societies and understand the sense of vulnerability and powerlessness felt by their brothers and sisters in Europe and elsewhere. The second is to use this awareness to foster solidarity and organization. The Jewish community is not yet global, but it can become so. To my knowledge, there are, as yet, no organizations, ad hoc or otherwise, dedicated solely to fighting the Global Pogrom. The existence of one, hopefully with representatives from all Jewish communities around the world, and funded mainly by American Jews and the Israeli government, is an essential first step.

Moreover, we have other models that demonstrate the success of specific tactics. The recent multi-million dollar judgment against the Palestinian Authority for engagement in terrorism is an excellent example. Organizations like Shurat HaDin, which pursued the case against the PA, and the Southern Poverty Law Center, which has successfully litigated against American white supremacist groups, have shown that victims of racist violence can financially damage the individuals and organizations behind this violence, and sometimes drive them into bankruptcy and outright collapse.

French Prime Minister Manuel Valls. Photo: Briand / Wikimedia
French Prime Minister Manuel Valls. Photo: Briand / Wikimedia

Political advocacy can be equally effective. There is no doubt that the European Jews lack an advocate, and a global anti-Pogrom organization backed by Israel and American Jewry can fill this vacuum. Indeed, properly undertaken, it could immensely aid in such causes as disabusing the U.S. administration of its unfortunate misconceptions in regard to the Pogrom, puncturing Europe’s sense of moral superiority on the subject, and pressuring governments and institutions to consistently enforce the laws and regulations that would cripple the Pogrom’s ability to commit violence and incitement.

In the media and cultural realm, advocacy against the Pogrom and its accomplices should concentrate on urging the press to give more coverage to the problem, and to expose and ostracize pogromists, as well as their defenders and apologists. Advocacy can also go a long way toward seizing the moral high ground and shifting perceptions, demanding that things be called what they are: This wave of anti-Semitism is not a series of isolated incidents; authorities are not doing enough to stop it; the Arab-Israeli conflict is neither relevant to nor an excuse for those who engage in racist violence; campus organizations that use intimidation and incitement against their opponents are hate groups; anti-Israel demonstrations that devolve into anti-Jewish hate speech and violence are not demonstrations but pogroms; the phenomenon of mass emigration is not an exodus but an expulsion; and the world is morally culpable for its inaction.

In addition, an effort must be made to understand that the struggle against the Pogrom is not just a Jewish struggle. Although it is sometimes hard to find them, the Jews do have allies, such as the aforementioned Manuel Valls. It is necessary, even imperative, to include them as part of any anti-Pogrom organization. The Jews have some power, but if only by sheer numbers, non-Jews have much more. The Jews often have few friends, and should never turn away from those willing to make a stand against anti-Semitism and the Global Pogrom to which it has given birth.

All of this may seem a daunting task, and it is; but there is no doubt that it is a battle that can be won. And it can be won because, besides savagery, the most prominent quality of the Pogrom is cowardice. It only attacks soft targets, and usually when the pogromists’ overwhelming numbers grant them a sense of safety and impunity. The Global Pogrom is the work of cowards, and cowards can be deterred.

But none of this will happen unless action is taken, and it must first be taken by the global Jewish community and its allies. And it must be taken now. Because one thing has become eminently clear: We can’t wait.

Why can’t we wait?
First, there is the simple fact that the Pogrom has already claimed too many victims. It has steadily escalated from individual acts of violence, such as the murder of Ilan Halimi and the Toulouse massacre, to full-scale mob attacks against Jews and Jewish sites. And like most diseases, if left untreated, it will get worse. As journalist Ben Cohen has noted, the Pogrom has already become a mass movement, and if it is not stopped, it could well result in mayhem and murder on a much larger scale. Again, it is not the Holocaust; but the casualty rate is already unacceptable, and there is no reason to think it will not rise precipitously if action is not taken.

Second, the Jews of Europe and countries such as Turkey are facing what can only be described as a de facto expulsion. Life for them is becoming impossible, and they are acting accordingly. Aliyah rates are already skyrocketing; and many European Jews are seriously considering other options, such as the UK or the United States. This is, of course, an understandable response, and one to which the Jews have unfortunately adapted over the course of centuries. But we should not turn away from what it is: Whether by indifference or design, the expulsion of a people is a crime against humanity. And all people have a moral obligation to prevent such things by whatever means necessary to do so. And if these means are not employed, and employed soon, the wave of emigration may well become impossible to arrest. Five centuries after the expulsion from Spain and 70 years after the Holocaust, the world will, in effect, have consented to another, if less terrible, crime against humanity and the Jewish people.

A screenshot from the video in which Israeli journalist Zvika Klein walked around Paris wearing a kippah and tzitzit. Photo: BREAK NEWS / NRG / YouTube
A screenshot from the video in which Israeli journalist Zvika Klein walked around Paris wearing a kippah and tzitzit. Photo: BREAK NEWS / NRG / YouTube

Third, there is no question that, should it continue to operate unchecked, the Pogrom will spread. Indeed, it has already done so. During the Gaza War, as noted above, attacks were reported in the U.S., Canada, Australia, Turkey, and other countries well beyond the borders of Europe. As also noted, college campuses in North America are quickly becoming incubators of the disease. The American and other non-European Jewish communities likely feel that their distance from the epicenter of the Pogrom will keep them safe, but this is very unlikely to be the case. Mass movements, anti-Semitic or otherwise, almost always become larger if they are not effectively checked; and large Jewish communities, including in the United States, will be far too tempting a target should the Pogrom reach critical mass outside Europe.

Fourth, there is the consequence that thus far has dared not speak its name: In the face of official inaction, there are those in the European Jewish community who have decided that the Jews must be protected by any means necessary, and they are swiftly gaining popularity and power as a result. With anti-Jewish violence reaching unprecedented levels, and lacking any trust in the authorities, Jews are turning to their own extremists, including groups whose politics are dangerously radical.

The most prominent of these groups is the LDJ, a French offshoot of the Jewish Defense League. Embracing the extremist ideology of the late Meir Kahane, they are perfectly willing to use violence in the defense of the Jewish community; and as the situation worsens, they have risen in membership and esteem. Having participated in the successful defense of the la Roquette synagogue, they are now regarded as heroes by some in the French Jewish community, and the failure of the authorities to effectively protect the synagogue has leant some credibility to this claim. If more effective action is not forthcoming, we may well find more and more young Jews embracing the LDJ as their only shield against anti-Semitic violence. As one older member of the French-Jewish community said after last summer’s pogrom, “The LDJ is our Iron Dome.”

This should be a sobering thought for many. It takes a great deal to push the Jews to violence, but when it happens, we are often very good at it. In a terribly ironic twist, the French authorities may soon face a situation in which their Jews have become so radicalized that they will undertake not only exodus, but an armed struggle. And the first Diaspora revolt in 2,000 years, spearheaded by a Kahanist group, would be neither good for Europe nor good for the Jews.

Finally, there is the simplest but most important question: The question of justice. The nations of Europe and the international community in general have for decades based their laws and their rhetoric on the idea that persecution on the basis of race or religion constitutes not only a legal but a moral injustice. Thus far, however, they have turned away from justice in regard to the global Jewish community. The victims and targets of the Global Pogrom deserve justice, a justice too long deferred. The struggle against the Pogrom is, in short, a moral struggle, a struggle for universal justice, and the world has an obligation to act accordingly. But if the struggle does not begin now, the situation may well reach the point at which justice is impossible.

“In every generation,” reads the Haggadah, “they rise up to destroy us.” No amount of denial can change an indisputable fact: They have risen up again. And they must be stopped.

We can’t wait. Neither can the world. It is time for this generation’s struggle for justice to begin.



Banner Photo: Claude Truong-Ngoc / Wikimedia

Europe’s Wave of Anti-Semitism Can Be Stopped. Here’s How / Benjamin Kerstein
French Prime Minister Manuel Valls at the funeral of French Jewish community leader Jean Kahn, August 20, 2013. Photo: Claude Truong-Ngoc / Wikimedia

Flowers were placed in front of Copenhagen’s Great Synagogue after a shooting that left a Jewish security guard dead. Photo: Kim Bach / Wikimedia

The anti-Semitic French comedian Dieudonné. Photo: Jastrow / Wikimedia

French Prime Minister Manuel Valls. Photo: Briand / Wikimedia

A screenshot from the video in which Israeli journalist Zvika Klein walked around Paris wearing a kippah and tzitzit. Photo: BREAK NEWS / NRG / YouTube

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Riding on a speeding train; trapped inside a revolving door;
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One focal point in a random world can change your direction:
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Re: The Chosen (Part 1)

Post by grindael »

grindael wrote:

Hitler’s antisemitism. Why did he hate the Jews?
Antisemitism played a major role in Adolf Hitler’s thinking and in the Nazi ideology. Read here what inspired Hitler's hatred of Jews and what life events played a role in its development.
Antisemitism: an age-old phenomenonHitler did not invent the hatred of Jews. Jews in Europe had been victims of discrimination and persecution since the Middle Ages, often for religious reasons. Christians saw the Jewish faith as an aberration that had to be quashed. Jews were sometimes forced to convert or they were not allowed to practise certain professions.In the nineteenth century, religion played a less important role. It was replaced by theories about the differences between races and peoples. The idea that Jews belonged to a different people than the Germans, for instance, caught on. Even Jews who had converted to Christianity were still 'different' because of their bloodline.
Picture of a burning of Jews (around 1353). Jews are blamed for the plague epidemic in Europe and accused of poisoning the wells.
Picture of a burning of Jews (around 1353). Jews are blamed for the plague epidemic in Europe and accused of poisoning the wells.
Collection: KIK-IRPA / maker: Pierart dou Tielt. Source: Wikimedia Commons. Rights: Public Domain
Hitler is introduced to antisemitismThe origin of Hitler's hatred of Jews is not clear. In Mein Kampf, he described his development into an antisemite as the result of a long, personal struggle. Supposedly, his aversion to everything Jewish came to fruition when he was living and working as a painter in Vienna (1908-1913). Most historians believe that Hitler came up with this explanation in hindsight. He would have used it to assure people who were not yet convinced of his ideas that they would eventually see the light.One way or another, it is clear that Hitler came into contact with antisemitic ideas at an early age. To what extent he shared them at that point, is not certain. If he was prejudiced against Jews while living in Vienna, his prejudice had not yet crystallised into a clear worldview. After all, one of the most loyal buyers of his paintings in Vienna was a Jew, Samuel Morgenstern.
Imaginative explanationsThere are countless imaginative explanations for the reasons for Hitler's antisemitism. Hitler is said to be have been ashamed of his partly Jewish roots. Another explanation links his hatred of Jews to trauma caused by a poison gas attack in the First World War. Yet other theories suggest that Hitler had contracted a venereal disease from a Jewish prostitute. There are, however, no facts to support these explanations.
German nationalism and antisemitismWhat we do know is that two Austrian politicians greatly influenced Hitler's thinking. The first, Georg Ritter von Schönerer (1842-1921), was a German nationalist. He believed that the German-speaking regions of Austria-Hungary should be added to the German empire. He also felt that Jews could never be fully-fledged German citizens.From the second, the Viennese mayor Karl Lueger (1844-1910), Hitler learned how antisemitism and social reforms could be successful. In Mein Kampf, Hitler praised Lueger as 'the greatest German mayor of all times'. When Hitler came to power in 1933, he put similar ideas into practice.
Portrait of Karl Lueger (around 1900), mayor of Vienna. He uses antisemitism as a political strategy.
Portrait of Karl Lueger (around 1900), mayor of Vienna. He uses antisemitism as a political strategy.
Collection: Austrian National Library / painter: Alois Delug. Source: Wikimedia Commons. Rights: Public Domain
Hitler during the First World WarThe First World War played a decisive role in Hitler’s life. It gave his life, which had been rather unsuccessful up until then, a new purpose. In 1914, he enlisted in the German army, which, together with the Austro-Hungarian Empire, was fighting France, England, and Russia. Although he saw little action, he did receive an award for courage shown.When Germany surrendered in November 1918, Hitler was in a military hospital. His eyes had been hurt in a poison gas attack in Belgium. Confined to his sickbed, he heard the news of the German surrender, which plunged him into a deep crisis. He wrote that ‘everything began to go black again before my eyes.’ Stumbling, he groped his way back to the dormitory and dug his ‘burning head in blanket and pillow.
German soldiers during the First World War. At the far left: Hitler as a young soldier (around 1914).
German soldiers during the First World War. At the far left: Hitler as a young soldier (around 1914).
Collection: National Archives and Records Administration. Source: Wikimedia Commons. Rights: Public Domain
Jews as the scapegoats for the lost warThe German defeat was hard to swallow for many Germans, and for Hitler, too. In nationalist and right-wing conservative circles, the ‘stab-in-the-back legend’ became popular. According to this myth, Germany did not lose the war on the battlefield, but through betrayal at the home front. The Jews, Social Democrats, and Communists were held responsible.The prejudices about the role of the Jews in the war were false. An investigation carried out by the German Government proved as much. Over one hundred thousand German and Austrian Jews had fought for their fatherland. Otto Frank, who had fought in the Battle of the Somme in 1916, was just one of them.
Hitler goes into politicsAfter the First World War, Germany was in chaos. Once the German emperor had gone, rebellions erupted everywhere. Left-wing groups tried to seize power in many places. In Munich, for instance, a 'People's Republic' of Bavaria was proclaimed during a brief revolution. It provoked a right-wing reaction, which in turn resulted in bloodshed. Hitler was very much impressed by these events.At that point, he was still in the army, and that was where he discovered his oratory talents. Before long, the army had him give training courses, intended to warn soldiers of the communist danger and to stir up feelings of nationalism. In his new role, Hitler got to know the German Workers' Party, the forerunner of the NSDAP. It was the start of his political career.
Radicalisation of Hitler’s antisemitismAgainst the backdrop of revolution and violence, Hitler's antisemitism was becoming increasingly radical. It is noteworthy that he said he did not support uncontrolled 'emotional' pogroms (outbursts of anti-Jewish violence). Instead, he argued for an ‘antisemitism of the mind'. It had to be legal and would ultimately lead to the 'removal' of the Jews.As early as August 1920, Hitler compared the Jews to germs. He stated that diseases cannot be controlled unless you destroy their causes. The influence of the Jews would never disappear without removing its cause, the Jew, from our midst, he said. These radical ideas paved the way for the mass murder of the Jews in the 1940s.
Capitalism and communism: a Jewish conspiracy?Hitler blamed the Jews for everything that was wrong with the world. Germany was weak and in decline due to the 'Jewish influence'. According to Hitler, the Jews were after world dominance. And they would not hesitate to use all possible means, including capitalism. In this way, Hitler took advantage of the existing prejudice that linked the Jews to monetary power and financial gain.Hitler was not bothered by the apparent contradictions in his thinking. He held that communism was a Jewish conspiracy, too, as the larger part of the communist leaders were Jewish. Nevertheless, only a small proportion of the Jews were communists. This idea of 'Jewish communism' was to have awful repercussions in the war with the Soviet Union that started in 1941. The population and prisoners-of-war were treated brutally by the Germans.
Hitler’s racism: not just the ____ viewed the world as an arena for the permanent struggle between peoples. He divided the world population into high and low races. The Germans belonged to the high peoples and the Jews to the low ones. He also had specific notions about other peoples. The Slavic people, for instance, were cast as inferior, predestined to be dominated.Hitler felt that the German people could only be strong if they were 'pure'. As a consequence, people with hereditary diseases were considered harmful. These included people with physical or mental disabilities, as well as alcoholics and 'incorrigible' criminals. Once the Nazis had come to power, these ideas led to the forced sterilisation and killing of human beings.
During the Nazi dictatorship, German children are taught about the 'racial doctrine' and the superiority of the Aryan race. Photograph from 1943.
During the Nazi dictatorship, German children are taught about the 'racial doctrine' and the superiority of the Aryan race. Photograph from 1943.
Source and rights: bpk Bildagentur
HolocaustThe ideas that Hitler developed in the 1920s remained more or less the same until his death in 1945. What did change is that in 1933, he was handed the power to start realising them. During the 1930s, he did everything he could to expel the Jews from German society. Once the war had started, the Nazis resorted to mass murder. Nearly six million Jews were murdered during the Holocaust.
Literature
Brechtken, Magnus, Die nationalsozialistische Herrschaft 1933-1939 (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 2004).
Burleigh, Michael, The Third Reich: A New History (Londen: Macmillan, 2000).
Evans, Richard J., The Coming of the Third Reich (New York: The Penguin Press, 2004).
Hamann, Brigitte, Hitler’s Vienna: A Portrait of the Tyrant as a Young Man (New York, New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999).
Kershaw, Ian, Hitler: Profiles in Power (Londen 1991).
Kershaw, Ian, Hitler, 1889-1945 (London : Allen Lane, 1998-2000).
Longerich Peter, Hitler: Biographie (München: Siedler, 2015).
Melching, Willem, Hitler: opkomst en ondergang van een Duits politicus (Amsterdam: Bakker, 2013).
Ullrich, Volker, Hitler. Vol. 1: Ascent, 1889-1939 (New York, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2016).
References
Brigitte Hamann, Hitler’s Vienna: A Portrait of the Tyrant as a Young Man (New York, New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), p. 356-359.
Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf (English translation, Boston 1971) p. 55.
Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, p. 204.
Die "Judenzählung" von 1916. Deutsches Historisches Museum, Berlin. https://www.dhm.de/lemo/kapitel/erster- ... -1916.html [13 November 2018].
"Antisemitismus de Vernunft". In: Adolf Hitler, Gutachten über den Antisemitismus (1919) erstellt im Auftrag seiner militärischen Vorgesetzten’. Included in: Maser, Werner, Hitlers Briefe und Notizen (Düsseldorf 1973).
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Re: The Chosen (Part 1)

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Re: The Chosen (Part 1)

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One focal point in a random world can change your direction:
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Re: The Chosen (Part 1)

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Re: The Chosen (Part 1)

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grindael wrote:
How to stop the horrifying resurgence of anti-Semitism
Opinion by Moshe Kantor

Updated 4:18 PM ET, Fri November 8, 2019
German city of Dresden declares 'Nazi emergency'

German city of Dresden declares 'Nazi emergency' 00:35
Moshe Kantor is president of the European Jewish Congress and the World Holocaust Forum Foundation, which is holding an event on International Holocaust Remembrance Day, in January 2020 in Israel, which will be attended by world leaders, titled "Remembering the Holocaust, Fighting Antisemitism." The opinions expressed in this commentary are his own. View more opinion articles on CNN.


(CNN)Numerous historians have concluded that Kristallnacht, the "Night of the Broken Glass" in 1938, changed everything. During a single night throughout Germany and Austria, almost one hundred Jews were murdered, hundreds of synagogues destroyed, thousands of Jewish shops and businesses ransacked and tens of thousands sent to concentration camps.

Moshe Kantor
Moshe Kantor
Jews had been subjected to discriminatory laws, like restricting their rights of profession, education and citizenship, since 1933, when the Nazis came to power.
This legal, racist oppression was coupled with physical attacks, which in turn led to hundreds of thousands of Jews fleeing as refugees.
Nevertheless, that night on the ninth of November, 81 years ago, has been considered the beginning of the Holocaust and the attempted annihilation of European Jewry.
Kristallnacht did not take place in a vacuum. It was a carefully arranged pogrom that was given a "green light" by an event that took place exactly four months prior.
In July of that year, the Evian Conference, attended by representatives from 32 nations, was convened at the initiative of the US to discuss measures to take against the oppression and exodus of the Jews of Europe.
Catastrophically, due to political and diplomatic differences, the conference ended without agreement and no remedy or measures were taken. Those who would unleash unimaginable horrors understood that the world would not stand in their way. Inaction left Europe's Jews to their fate.
Anti-Semitic hate crimes on the rise in US

Anti-Semitic hate crimes on the rise in US 03:29
This moment sealed the destiny of six million Jews, beginning shortly afterward with Kristallnacht.
Today, eight decades later, Jews around the world find themselves in the most precarious position since humanity's darkest chapter. Last year, from Pittsburgh to Paris, Jews were murdered simply for who they are. The perpetrators may subscribe to divergent ideologies, but their raison d'être is identical, to end the life of as many Jews as possible.
Jews get the message. Many now hide signs of their religious affinity. Jewish institutions are erecting high walls and barbed wire defenses. Jewish schools, kindergartens and synagogues require security akin to airports.
These are the foreboding trappings of a community in danger and unsure of its safety or security.
While the situation is not the same as eight decades ago, the signs are there nonetheless and becoming ever more worrisome. Only a few days ago, the German city of Dresden declared a "Nazi emergency" after years of violent attacks on Jews and other minorities, and a white supremacist was just arrested by the FBI for allegedly plotting to bomb a synagogue in Colorado.
FBI: A Nevada security guard plotted attacks on minorities

FBI: A Nevada security guard plotted attacks on minorities 00:54
Eighty-one years ago, the disagreement, disunity and inertia of the international community allowed antisemites to act wantonly and freely. Today, while the perpetrators are largely private individuals and not state actors, the lessons that we must learn remain.
The Jews of the world must know that there is now a courageous and moral majority that stands solidly alongside them. For this, we need an international effort to confront anti-Semitism.
Leaders need to cut off the oxygen given to those who seek to perpetrate attacks against Jews and spread their hate. There must be recognition that anti-Semitism is not the purview of one group or one particular ideology, but has a long and bloody history spanning numerous outlooks and worldviews.
Anti-Semitism corrodes the foundations of democratic societies. As history has taught us, hatred begins with Jews, but it never ends with Jews. There needs to be a new comprehensive undertaking to end a felonious tolerance of hate and racism, whether against Jews or any other targeted minority.
If eight decades ago international disunity led to violence and bloodshed, then a common sense of purpose with a clear road map of measures will protect and save lives today.
"The Working Definition of Antisemitism" adopted by the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA) and by several of its member states, should become universally accepted in its entirety.
It is this: "Antisemitism is a certain perception of Jews, which may be expressed as hatred toward Jews. Rhetorical and physical manifestations of antisemitism are directed toward Jewish or non-Jewish individuals and/or their property, toward Jewish community institutions and religious facilities."
There should be zero-tolerance for antisemitism and other forms of hate. Freedom of expression is a vital value, but the right to life, safety and security is paramount. Time and again, those who shed the blood of Jews have been fed incitement, lies and myths against the Jewish people. Such vile hatred flourishes today on social media and in online chat rooms.
Merkel: We must face up to the specters of our past

Merkel: We must face up to the specters of our past 02:08
No one is born to hate, so we must inculcate against intolerance. It begins with education.
We must teach to value difference and ensure that dangerous propaganda spreading violent hate is utterly unacceptable.
The global Jewish community is facing unprecedented challenges to its future. Especially in Europe, where communities managed to survive the greatest industrial genocide in modern history, Jews need an international alliance against anti-Semitism.
Eighty-one years ago, rabid and vicious antisemites witnessed the world's leaders' disinterest in the suffering of Jews. It empowered them to perpetrate a seemingly endless orgy of bloodshed.
The world and its leaders must ensure this is never again repeated.
As Elie Wiesel once said, "Silence encourages the tormentor, never the tormented."
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Brazil's President accuses the actor of 'donating money to set the Amazon on fire'
Riding on a speeding train; trapped inside a revolving door;
Lost in the riddle of a quatrain; Stuck in an elevator between floors.
One focal point in a random world can change your direction:
One step where events converge may alter your perception.

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grindael
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Re: The Chosen (Part 1)

Post by grindael »

grindael wrote:

Hitler’s antisemitism. Why did he hate the Jews?
Antisemitism played a major role in Adolf Hitler’s thinking and in the Nazi ideology. Read here what inspired Hitler's hatred of Jews and what life events played a role in its development.
Antisemitism: an age-old phenomenonHitler did not invent the hatred of Jews. Jews in Europe had been victims of discrimination and persecution since the Middle Ages, often for religious reasons. Christians saw the Jewish faith as an aberration that had to be quashed. Jews were sometimes forced to convert or they were not allowed to practise certain professions.In the nineteenth century, religion played a less important role. It was replaced by theories about the differences between races and peoples. The idea that Jews belonged to a different people than the Germans, for instance, caught on. Even Jews who had converted to Christianity were still 'different' because of their bloodline.
Picture of a burning of Jews (around 1353). Jews are blamed for the plague epidemic in Europe and accused of poisoning the wells.
Picture of a burning of Jews (around 1353). Jews are blamed for the plague epidemic in Europe and accused of poisoning the wells.
Collection: KIK-IRPA / maker: Pierart dou Tielt. Source: Wikimedia Commons. Rights: Public Domain
Hitler is introduced to antisemitismThe origin of Hitler's hatred of Jews is not clear. In Mein Kampf, he described his development into an antisemite as the result of a long, personal struggle. Supposedly, his aversion to everything Jewish came to fruition when he was living and working as a painter in Vienna (1908-1913). Most historians believe that Hitler came up with this explanation in hindsight. He would have used it to assure people who were not yet convinced of his ideas that they would eventually see the light.One way or another, it is clear that Hitler came into contact with antisemitic ideas at an early age. To what extent he shared them at that point, is not certain. If he was prejudiced against Jews while living in Vienna, his prejudice had not yet crystallised into a clear worldview. After all, one of the most loyal buyers of his paintings in Vienna was a Jew, Samuel Morgenstern.
Imaginative explanationsThere are countless imaginative explanations for the reasons for Hitler's antisemitism. Hitler is said to be have been ashamed of his partly Jewish roots. Another explanation links his hatred of Jews to trauma caused by a poison gas attack in the First World War. Yet other theories suggest that Hitler had contracted a venereal disease from a Jewish prostitute. There are, however, no facts to support these explanations.
German nationalism and antisemitismWhat we do know is that two Austrian politicians greatly influenced Hitler's thinking. The first, Georg Ritter von Schönerer (1842-1921), was a German nationalist. He believed that the German-speaking regions of Austria-Hungary should be added to the German empire. He also felt that Jews could never be fully-fledged German citizens.From the second, the Viennese mayor Karl Lueger (1844-1910), Hitler learned how antisemitism and social reforms could be successful. In Mein Kampf, Hitler praised Lueger as 'the greatest German mayor of all times'. When Hitler came to power in 1933, he put similar ideas into practice.
Portrait of Karl Lueger (around 1900), mayor of Vienna. He uses antisemitism as a political strategy.
Portrait of Karl Lueger (around 1900), mayor of Vienna. He uses antisemitism as a political strategy.
Collection: Austrian National Library / painter: Alois Delug. Source: Wikimedia Commons. Rights: Public Domain
Hitler during the First World WarThe First World War played a decisive role in Hitler’s life. It gave his life, which had been rather unsuccessful up until then, a new purpose. In 1914, he enlisted in the German army, which, together with the Austro-Hungarian Empire, was fighting France, England, and Russia. Although he saw little action, he did receive an award for courage shown.When Germany surrendered in November 1918, Hitler was in a military hospital. His eyes had been hurt in a poison gas attack in Belgium. Confined to his sickbed, he heard the news of the German surrender, which plunged him into a deep crisis. He wrote that ‘everything began to go black again before my eyes.’ Stumbling, he groped his way back to the dormitory and dug his ‘burning head in blanket and pillow.
German soldiers during the First World War. At the far left: Hitler as a young soldier (around 1914).
German soldiers during the First World War. At the far left: Hitler as a young soldier (around 1914).
Collection: National Archives and Records Administration. Source: Wikimedia Commons. Rights: Public Domain
Jews as the scapegoats for the lost warThe German defeat was hard to swallow for many Germans, and for Hitler, too. In nationalist and right-wing conservative circles, the ‘stab-in-the-back legend’ became popular. According to this myth, Germany did not lose the war on the battlefield, but through betrayal at the home front. The Jews, Social Democrats, and Communists were held responsible.The prejudices about the role of the Jews in the war were false. An investigation carried out by the German Government proved as much. Over one hundred thousand German and Austrian Jews had fought for their fatherland. Otto Frank, who had fought in the Battle of the Somme in 1916, was just one of them.
Hitler goes into politicsAfter the First World War, Germany was in chaos. Once the German emperor had gone, rebellions erupted everywhere. Left-wing groups tried to seize power in many places. In Munich, for instance, a 'People's Republic' of Bavaria was proclaimed during a brief revolution. It provoked a right-wing reaction, which in turn resulted in bloodshed. Hitler was very much impressed by these events.At that point, he was still in the army, and that was where he discovered his oratory talents. Before long, the army had him give training courses, intended to warn soldiers of the communist danger and to stir up feelings of nationalism. In his new role, Hitler got to know the German Workers' Party, the forerunner of the NSDAP. It was the start of his political career.
Radicalisation of Hitler’s antisemitismAgainst the backdrop of revolution and violence, Hitler's antisemitism was becoming increasingly radical. It is noteworthy that he said he did not support uncontrolled 'emotional' pogroms (outbursts of anti-Jewish violence). Instead, he argued for an ‘antisemitism of the mind'. It had to be legal and would ultimately lead to the 'removal' of the Jews.As early as August 1920, Hitler compared the Jews to germs. He stated that diseases cannot be controlled unless you destroy their causes. The influence of the Jews would never disappear without removing its cause, the Jew, from our midst, he said. These radical ideas paved the way for the mass murder of the Jews in the 1940s.
Capitalism and communism: a Jewish conspiracy?Hitler blamed the Jews for everything that was wrong with the world. Germany was weak and in decline due to the 'Jewish influence'. According to Hitler, the Jews were after world dominance. And they would not hesitate to use all possible means, including capitalism. In this way, Hitler took advantage of the existing prejudice that linked the Jews to monetary power and financial gain.Hitler was not bothered by the apparent contradictions in his thinking. He held that communism was a Jewish conspiracy, too, as the larger part of the communist leaders were Jewish. Nevertheless, only a small proportion of the Jews were communists. This idea of 'Jewish communism' was to have awful repercussions in the war with the Soviet Union that started in 1941. The population and prisoners-of-war were treated brutally by the Germans.
Hitler’s racism: not just the ____ viewed the world as an arena for the permanent struggle between peoples. He divided the world population into high and low races. The Germans belonged to the high peoples and the Jews to the low ones. He also had specific notions about other peoples. The Slavic people, for instance, were cast as inferior, predestined to be dominated.Hitler felt that the German people could only be strong if they were 'pure'. As a consequence, people with hereditary diseases were considered harmful. These included people with physical or mental disabilities, as well as alcoholics and 'incorrigible' criminals. Once the Nazis had come to power, these ideas led to the forced sterilisation and killing of human beings.
During the Nazi dictatorship, German children are taught about the 'racial doctrine' and the superiority of the Aryan race. Photograph from 1943.
During the Nazi dictatorship, German children are taught about the 'racial doctrine' and the superiority of the Aryan race. Photograph from 1943.
Source and rights: bpk Bildagentur
HolocaustThe ideas that Hitler developed in the 1920s remained more or less the same until his death in 1945. What did change is that in 1933, he was handed the power to start realising them. During the 1930s, he did everything he could to expel the Jews from German society. Once the war had started, the Nazis resorted to mass murder. Nearly six million Jews were murdered during the Holocaust.
Literature
Brechtken, Magnus, Die nationalsozialistische Herrschaft 1933-1939 (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 2004).
Burleigh, Michael, The Third Reich: A New History (Londen: Macmillan, 2000).
Evans, Richard J., The Coming of the Third Reich (New York: The Penguin Press, 2004).
Hamann, Brigitte, Hitler’s Vienna: A Portrait of the Tyrant as a Young Man (New York, New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999).
Kershaw, Ian, Hitler: Profiles in Power (Londen 1991).
Kershaw, Ian, Hitler, 1889-1945 (London : Allen Lane, 1998-2000).
Longerich Peter, Hitler: Biographie (München: Siedler, 2015).
Melching, Willem, Hitler: opkomst en ondergang van een Duits politicus (Amsterdam: Bakker, 2013).
Ullrich, Volker, Hitler. Vol. 1: Ascent, 1889-1939 (New York, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2016).
References
Brigitte Hamann, Hitler’s Vienna: A Portrait of the Tyrant as a Young Man (New York, New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), p. 356-359.
Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf (English translation, Boston 1971) p. 55.
Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, p. 204.
Die "Judenzählung" von 1916. Deutsches Historisches Museum, Berlin. https://www.dhm.de/lemo/kapitel/erster- ... -1916.html [13 November 2018].
"Antisemitismus de Vernunft". In: Adolf Hitler, Gutachten über den Antisemitismus (1919) erstellt im Auftrag seiner militärischen Vorgesetzten’. Included in: Maser, Werner, Hitlers Briefe und Notizen (Düsseldorf 1973).
Riding on a speeding train; trapped inside a revolving door;
Lost in the riddle of a quatrain; Stuck in an elevator between floors.
One focal point in a random world can change your direction:
One step where events converge may alter your perception.

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Smokey
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Re: The Chosen (Part 1)

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^

This is certainly how a sane person acts.
Dr Shades is Jason Gallentine

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Re: The Chosen (Part 1)

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Image
Riding on a speeding train; trapped inside a revolving door;
Lost in the riddle of a quatrain; Stuck in an elevator between floors.
One focal point in a random world can change your direction:
One step where events converge may alter your perception.

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canpakes
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Re: The Chosen (Part 1)

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Image

Smokey wrote:The Jews planned, push and run all of chemtrails ...

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Re: The Chosen (Part 1)

Post by Gadianton »

canpakes wrote:Image

Smokey wrote:The Jews planned, push and run all of chemtrails ...



LOL!!!

okay, when i stop laughing i'm going to bed.
FARMS refuted:

"...supporters of Billy Meier still point to the very clear photos of Pleiadian beam ships flying over his farm. They argue that for the photos to be fakes, we have to believe that a one-armed man who had no knowledge of Photoshop or other digital photography programs could have made such realistic photos and films..." -- D. R. Prothero

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Re: The Chosen (Part 1)

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Image

All work and no play, smokey ......
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Re: The Chosen (Part 1)

Post by Dr Exiled »

Image

Heeerrrreee's Smokey's big reveal .....
"Religion is about providing human community in the guise of solving problems that don’t exist or failing to solve problems that do and seeking to reconcile these contradictions and conceal the failures in bogus explanations otherwise known as theology." - Kishkumen 

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Re: The Chosen (Part 1)

Post by Dr Exiled »

Image

You've always been the caretaker, smokey ....
"Religion is about providing human community in the guise of solving problems that don’t exist or failing to solve problems that do and seeking to reconcile these contradictions and conceal the failures in bogus explanations otherwise known as theology." - Kishkumen 

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honorentheos
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Re: The Chosen (Part 1)

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Spamming a thread is a Pandora's Box.

I say that as someone interested in the board and community not being damaged by a Smokey-like poster. Perhaps shades will opt to put him on queue in Terrestrial just to reduce his work load, and perhaps not to avoid the whining that will inevitably ensue. Either way, perhaps taking into account that ignoring a poster not only saves both moderating and others time but also preserves the likelihood people will not simply disengage from the board in response like walls of spam inspire. We are all free to choose of course, but those choices aggregate into a collective direction and right now I'm not fond of the one being leaned into.
Last edited by honorentheos on Sun Dec 01, 2019 1:32 am, edited 1 time in total.
The world is always full of the sound of waves..but who knows the heart of the sea, a hundred feet down? Who knows it's depth?
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canpakes
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Re: The Chosen (Part 1)

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Smokey wrote:Jews planned, pushed and run all of: sexual revolution and homosexual propaganda & rights, feminist empowerment and White couples low birth rate, abortion laws and propaganda, Islamization of Europe, antiWhite propaganda in media & education, multiculturalism and dozens of thousands of horrible crimes, rapes, thefts per year done by non-Whites on Whites, Porn, race-mixing-miscegination (sic), Church of Satan, atheism, secularism, moral decay, chemtrails, vaccines,c and poisoned food that destroy the intelligence-IQ/health of Whites, and finally the certain future of Whites becoming a powerless minority in Europe, America, Australia, Canada by 2040-2060 and the complete Eradication of White-Western Civilization by 2100


Yep. Even "flourided (sic) drinks"...

Image


Oh noooo!! THE JOOZ!!1!

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Re: The Chosen (Part 1)

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Image

Hahahahahahahahaha
Last edited by Dr Exiled on Sun Dec 01, 2019 1:34 am, edited 1 time in total.
"Religion is about providing human community in the guise of solving problems that don’t exist or failing to solve problems that do and seeking to reconcile these contradictions and conceal the failures in bogus explanations otherwise known as theology." - Kishkumen 

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Re: The Chosen (Part 1)

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honorentheos wrote:Spamming a thread is a Pandora's Box.

I say that as someone interested in the board and community not being damaged by a Smokey-like poster. Perhaps shades will opt to put him on queue in Terrestrial just to reduce his work load, and perhaps not to avoid the whining that will inevitably ensue. Either way, perhaps taking into account that ignoring a poster not only saves both moderating and others time but also preserves the likelihood people will not simply disengage from the board in response like walls of spam inspire. We are all free to choose of course, but those choices aggregate into a collective direction and right now I'm not fond of the one being leaned into.


You... you and your sensible logic, dammit. : )

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canpakes
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Re: The Chosen (Part 1)

Post by canpakes »

Exiled wrote:Image



See? Fluoridated water.

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Res Ipsa
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Re: The Chosen (Part 1)

Post by Res Ipsa »

Smokey:

1. Are the people today who call themselves Jews descended from Adam?
2. Which people living today are Gods chosen people?
​“The ideal subject of totalitarian rule is not the convinced Nazi or the dedicated communist, but people for whom the distinction between fact and fiction, true and false, no longer exists.”

― Hannah Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism, 1951

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